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A.  Last modification date

B.  Credits

C.  Basic format

D.  Organization
    I.  Area headers
    II. Numbering
    III.    Mailing
    IV. A note about help files
    V.  Potential errata

E.  The area format breakdown
    1.  #AREA:  (not sure)
        I. #AREA
        II. filename.are~
        III. Area Name
        IV. {1 50} Builder Sample Area
        V. ZX00 ZX99

    2.  #MOBILES
        I.  <vnum>
        II.     name list
        III.    short description
        IV.     long description
        V.  look description
        VI.     race
        VII.  Act, Affect, Alignment and group
        VIII.   Level, hit bonus, hit dice, mana dice, damage, damtype
        IX. Armor classes
        X.  Offenses, Immunities, Resistances, Vulnerabilites
        XI. Positions, Gender and Treasure
        XII.    Form, Parts, Size and Material

    3.  #OBJECTS
        I.    <vnum>
        II.   <object_name>
        III.  <object_short>
        IV.   <object_long>
        V.    <description>
        VI.   <material>
        VII.  Flags, Extras, Wear locations
        VIII.   V0 through V4
        IX.   <level> <weight> <cost>
        X.  <applies>
        XI.  <flags>
        XII.  Object extra descriptions

    4.  #ROOMS
        I.  #<vnum>
        II. <room header>
        III.  <room description>
        IV.   <room flags>
        V.    <exit direction>
        VI.   <extended description of what is seen in direction>
        VII.  <door keyword>
        VIII. <door state> <exit vnum> <key vnum>
        IX.   <extra descriptions>
        X.    Mana and hp recovery adjustments
        XI.   <S>

    5.  #RESETS
        I.    M    load a mobile into a room
        II.   O    load an object into a room
        III.  P    put an object in an object (gold in a safe, etc.)
        IV.   G    give an object to mobile
        V.    E    equip an object to mobile
        VI.   D    set state of door
        VII.  S    stop (END OF LIST)

    6.  #SHOPS
        <mob#> <items> <profit-buy> <p-sell> <op-hour> <close>

    7.  #SPECIALS
        M <mobvnum> <special>

    8.  #$  -- closing the area file

F.  Definitions
    1.  vnum
    2.  warpstone
    3.  trash
    4.  pickproof
    5.  dice
    6.  mobile
    7.  jukebox

G.  Closing notes

A.  Last modification date

Rom 2.4/2.5 docs version 1, compiled by Satin (Gabrielle Taylor)

Don't forget to look for appendices dated past this document on the ftp
site!  There may be additional area-related code added in future Rom
releases, and rather than force you to print out a whole new copy
each time, a dated appendix will be placed on this ftp site.

B. Credits

This file contains material and information from the Merc release 2.1
Area help files (done by Furey, Hatchet, and Kahn), material from the
Merc Diku Mud code itself, material and examples from various area files
that are found in both ROM2 and MadROM, as well as coding material that
was adapted and modified by Alander for ROM1 and ROM2, and later by
Madman for MadROM.  It also contains information from Alander written
for ROM 2.3 and ROM2.4x, from Zump for Rom 2.4x, and information from
ozy.doc by Ozymandias.  It was compiled and rewritten by Satin for Tesseract 
(hypercube.org 9000), and then adapted by her to Rom 2.4x.

Many of my examples are drawn from Diku's Midgaard, and my example of a 
fountain is drawn from Conner's New Thalos area.

C.  Basic Format
An area file consists of 8 basic sections, as follows:

The area header:    vital statistics for the area
The mobiles:    the stats and descriptions of all monsters in the area
The objects:    the stats and descriptions of all objects in the area
The rooms:      a listing of all rooms and exits in the area
Area resets:    instructions for loading/maintaining the area
The shops:      a listing of any shops that the area contains
Specials:       procedures to enchance the performance of mobiles

Areas may also include special notes and procedures, such as a help
file, information on where on the area should be placed, and any special
code that should be written to make the area work properly.  This should
be included outside the main body of the area, but within the same file.

D. Organization

I.  The sections should all be contained in one large file, organized in
the following manner (the file proto.are can be used as a template):

<area header>

<the mobiles>

<the objects>

<the rooms and exits>

<the area resets>


<special procedures>

<to terminate the file>

II. Numbering

You will notice below that all these sections require numbers.  For
example, Hassan is mobile #1203, and the temple of Midgaard is room
#3001.  To make your area as simple to add as possible, number your
files as follows:

XX00-XX99 (1st 100 of anything)
XY00-XY99 (2nd 100 of anything)
And so on.  Thus, your mobile, object, and world files should ALL begin
with XX00 as the first entry.

III.  mailing

If you are on a unix system, please use the following protocol for
mailing your area:  ([name] is the name of the area, preferably a short
one, i.e. shire.are or chapel.are.

If you have gzip:
gzip [name]
uuencode [name].gz [name].gz | mail target@address
(make SURE you type the name twice here)

Otherwise use compress and the .Z suffix (instead of .gz).

If you can't compress your area and it is over 100k, make sure the
person you are mailing it to can handle receiving large files.

IV.  A note about help files

It used to be possible to include help files in areas.  However, it is
now preferred that the help file be sent in a separate file for
inclusion in another file set aside specifically for helps.


If you notice anything wrong or confusing in these docs, please mail me at 
gtaylor@pacinfo.com, and I will attempt to explain the confusion or correct 
the error -- these docs weren't exactly banged out overnight, but pretty damn 
close.  :)

E.  The area format

1.  #AREA:

II. filename.are~
III. Area Name~
IV. {1 50} Builder Sample Area~
V. ZX00 ZX99


I.  #AREA is the signifier that the code uses to mark the beginning of a

II.  Select an appropriately unique filename for your area to be saved
as.  Keep it short -- for instance, if your area is titled 'The Dell of the 
Darkness' an appropriate name is darkdell.are.  Do not forget to close with a 

III.  Type in the area name here as you expect it to appear when the
'area' command is typed, plus a closing tilde.

IV.  This is the line that will appear in the 'area' command.  The
numbers in brackets signify the minimum and maximum levels that a player
character should be before venturing into the area.  Insert the area
author's name in the spot labeled 'Builder' above, and the area name
where the example says 'Sample Area'.  Do not forget to close with a

V.  This is the virtual number (vnum) range your area is using.  You
must declare a range from 0 to 99 here even if you don't use that many
numbers, or a range from 0 to 199 if you use more than 100, etc.  Use a
placeholder or variable such as 'ZX' instead of a specific range unless
you have been assigned a range by the implementor of the mud you are
writing for.


I. <vnum>
II. name list~
III. short description~
IV.  long description
V. look description
VI.  race~
VII.  <act flags> <affect flags> <alignment> <mobile group>
VIII.  <level> <+ to hit> <hit dice> <mana dice> <damage> <damage type>
IX.  <pierce ac> <bash ac> <slash ac> <magic ac>
X.  <offensive flags> <immunities> <resistances> <vulnerabilities>
XI.  <start position> <default position> <sex> <treasure>
XII.  <form flags> <part flags> <size> <material>

example mobile:
A sample mobile is here, waiting for a face.
It looks bland and boring, and like it belongs nowhere near an area
file, but is a good example of a mobile.
ABTV CDFJVZ 1000 3000
45 30 1d1+3999 1d1+499 5d4+40 crush
-25 -25 -25 -15
stand stand either 0
0 0 medium 0


I.  The vnum is the number used to reference your mobile.  There may
only be one mobile of any given vnum at one time.  (see definitions)

II.  name list~
This is a list of names that the mobile can be referenced by, for
example a fat, ugly worm might have a name list of:
fat worm~
It's best to have more than one name per mobile. Don't forget the ~ at
the end of the line.

III.  short description~
The short description is seen when the mobile fights or performs
actions, i.e. "The large orc".  It should be kept fairly short,
preferably 20 characters or less. Don't forget the ~ at the end of the

IV.  long description~
The long description is seen whenever a character looks at the room a
mobile is in (provided, of course, that they can see the mobile in question).
The large orc peers suspiciously at you.
Ideally it should be one line in length, but in some cases two line or
longer long descriptions are justified.  Be sure to put a ~ BELOW the
description (not at the end of the line).

V.  look description~
This is the equivalent of a character's description, and is seen when
you look at a mobile.  It can be as long as you like, but 1-5 lines is
probably best.  Try and make it at least a little descriptive, players should 
feel rewarded for looking at a mobile.  Be sure to put a ~ BELOW the 
description (not at the end of the line).

VI.  race~
Every mobile should have a race, whether it be goblin, orc, troll, or
whatever.  See the list below for races that already exist.  If you feel
your race is sufficiently distinct to merit creation of a new one, include a 
note containing the abilities the race should have to the implementor you are 
working with.  Do not forget to put a ~ at the end of the line.

The following is a list of acceptable races on Tesseract.  Your
mileage on other muds may vary.

  affect flags: flying, dark vision
  offensive flags: dodge, fast
  vulnerabilities: light
  form: edible, animal, mammal
  parts: ACDEFHJKP

  offensive flags: crush, disarm, berserk
  resistances: bash, cold
  form: edible, animal, mammal

  affect flags: dark vision
  offensive flags: fast, dodge
  form: edible, animal, mammal

  affect flags: dark vision
  resistances: pierce, cold
  vulnerabilities: bash
  form: edible, poison, animal, insect
  parts: ACK

  offensive flags: fast
  form: edible, animal, mammal
  parts: ACDEFHJKUVo

  immunities: cold, poison, holy, negative, mental, disease, drowning
  resistances: bash, light
  vulnerabilities: slash, fire, acid, lightning, energy
  form: other, construct, biped, cold-blooded
  parts: ABCGHK

dragon (NPC dragons will typically have some flags stripped)
  affect flags: infravision, flying
  resistances: fire, bash
  vulnerabilities: pierce, cold
  form: edible, sentient, dragon

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: poison, disease
  vulnerabilities: drowning
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: charm
  vulnerabilities: iron
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  offensive flags: dodge, assist race
  vulnerabilities: magic
  form: edible, poison, animal, mammal

  affect flags: dark vision
  offensive flags: fast, dodge
  form: edible, animal, mammal

  resistances: fire, cold
  vulnerabilities: mental, lightning
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: disease
  vulnerabilities: magic
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: disease, poison
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: poison
  vulnerabilities: magic
  form: edible, poison, sentient, biped, mammal

  resistances: poison
  vulnerabilities: cold
  form: edible, animal, reptile, cold-blooded
  parts: ACDEFHKQV

  affect flags: infravision
  offensive flags: assist race, assist alignment
  immunities: charm, disease, mental, holy, negative
  resistances: fire, cold, acid
  form: sentient
  parts: ABCGHJK

  affect flags: infravision
  resistances: disease
  vulnerabilities: light
  form: edible, sentient, biped, mammal

  form: edible, animal, mammal
  parts: ACDEFHJK

  offensive flags: dodge, fast
  form: edible, animal, mammal
  parts: ACDEFHJK

school monster
  action flags: no alignment
  immunities: charm, summon
  vulnerabilities: magic
  form: edible, biped, mammal

  resistances: poison
  vulnerabilities: cold
  form: edible, animal, reptile, snake, cold-blooded
  parts: ADEFKLQVX

song bird
  affect flags: flying
  offensive flags: fast, dodge
  form: edible, animal, bird
  parts: ACDEFHKP

  affect flags: regeneration, infravision, detect hidden
  offensive flags: berserk
  resistances: charm, bash
  vulnerabilities: fire, acid
  form: edible, poison, sentient, biped, mammal

water fowl
  affect flags: swim, flying
  resistances: drowning
  form: edible, animal, bird
  parts: ACDEFHKP

  affect flags: dark vision
  offensive flags: fast, dodge
  form: edible, animal, mammal
  parts: ACDEFJQV

  affect flags: flying, detect invisible, detect hidden
  offensive flags: bash, fast, dodge
  immunities: poison
  vulnerabilities: light
  form: edible, poison, animal, dragon

VII.  Act, Affects, Aggression, Alignment, Mobile group

Act flags (short for "action") determine the in-game behavior of your
mobile. Input all of the flags you have chosen into the proper mobile section 
(as shown in the examples above).  Following is a listing of act flags:

A  NPC          Mobile is an NPC (set automatically by the game)
B  sentinel     Mobile doesn't wander
C  scavenger    Mobile picks up items on the floor
F  aggressive   Mobile attacks any character in the same room
            (see the section dealing with aggression)
G  stay area    Mobile will not leave a zone (this should be set)
H  wimpy        Mobile will fly when badly hurt
I  pet          Mobile is a pet (and hence safe from attack)
J  train        Mobile can train statistics
K  practice Mobile can practice
O  undead       Mobile has special undead powers (i.e. life draining)
Q  cleric       Mobile has cleric casting powers
R  mage         Mobile has mage casting powers
S  thief        Mobile has thief combat skills (backstab, etc.)
T  warrior      Mobile has warrior combat skills (disarm, parry, etc.)
U  noalign      Mobile is unaligned (unintelligent animals, golems, etc.)
V  nopurge      Mobile isn't removed by the purge command
W  outdoors     Mobile will not wander outside a building
Y  indoors      Mobile will not wander into a building
a  healer       Mobile can heal characters (i.e. the heal command)
b  gain         Mobile can grant new skills (i.e. the gain command)
c  update       Mobile is always updated, even in idle zones (rarely
d  changer      Mobile can change coins (i.e. Otho the Money Changer)

Affect Flags
Affect flags are used to assign various spell and spell-like effects to
a mobile, such as sanctuary, hidden, or detections.  The following list
contains all usable affect flags:

B  invisible    Mobile is invisible
C  detect evil  Mobile can sense evil
D  detect invis Mobile can see invisible. **
E  detect magic Mobile can see magic
F  detect hide  Mobile can see hidden (sneaking/hiding) characters
G  detect good  Mobile can sense good
H  sanctuary    Mobile is protected by a sanctuary spell. **
I  faerie fire  Mobile is surrounded by faerie fire (a hindrance)
J  infravision  Mobile can see heat sources in the dark
N  protect evil Mobile takes less damage from evil characters
O  protect good Mobile takes less damage from good characters
P  sneaking     Mobile is sneaking (hard to detect while moving)
Q  hiding       Mobile is hiding (cannot be seen without detect hidden)
T  flying       Mobile is flying
U  pass door    Mobile can walk through closed doors
V  haste        Mobile is affected by a haste spell
Z  dark vision  Mobile can see in the dark without a light source
b  swimming     Mobile is swimming (or capable of swimming)
c  regeneration Mobile recovers hit points and mana faster than usual

** Sanctuary and detect invisible are often overused, so please be
careful with them. Not every mobile should be able to see invisible, or the 
spell is worthless, and similarly not every hard mobile should have a 
sanctuary spell.

Example: a glowing ghost might have faerie fire, flying, and protect
good, for an affect flag of IOT.  There is no limit to the number of affect 
flags that may be set on a mobile, but be sure not to type the same letter 

Alignment is a number between -1000 and 1000, meant to represent the
ethos of your creature. -1000 is irredeemably evil, 1000 is saintly.  All but 
the most extreme monsters should fall between -500 and 500, and in particular 
it is hard to justify any low-level mobiles having extreme alignment.

Mobile Group
The mobile is used to group mobiles into allied groups.  They are
assigned by XXYY, where XX is your zone number (for Midgaard 30) and YY is 
some increasing number (so Midgaard's groups will be 3000, 3001, etc.).  Any 
mobile in the same group as another mobile will assist it in combat.  The 
actual number has no real meaning, but please use the numbering system above 
so that each area keeps unique grouping.

VIII.  Level, Hit bonus, Hit dice, Mana dice, Damage, Damage type:
(See the appendix at the end of the documentation for details on
recommended values depending on the mobile level)

This is a very important statistic, as it determines the  recommended
values for your mobile's combat abilities.  Try and make the level choice 
reasonable to believe.  Just as a level 2 Ancient Blue Wyrm makes no sense, 
neither does a level 50 snail.  Look over the recommended values for the level 
and please try to stay fairly close to them, otherwise your mobile may well be 
out of balance with the others in the game.

Hit bonus
This statistic is normally 0, but in mobiles with exceptional (and I do
mean exceptional) combat abilities it may be higher. Clumsy mobiles may
deserve a -1 or -2.

Hit dice
Hit dice are expressed as ndn+n (so many d-whatevers + a bonus).
Consult the recommended mobile values to get a rough idea how many hit points  
your mobile should have. The hit points will determine how much raw damage 
your monster can take before expiring.  For a fixed quantity of hit points 
enter it as x+1d1: i.e., for 100 hps, 1d1+99.

Mana dice
Mana dice are expressed as ndn+n.  Consult the recommended mobile values
to get a rough idea how much mana your mobile should have.
This value will determine how many spells your mobile can cast in a combat 
(non-spellcasters have a mana value as well, as their mana can be tapped by 
the energy drain spell).   Note that the mana value is not currently used, but 
mobiles WILL in future use it (and therefore be able to run out of it) so 
don't forget to define this section.

The damaging power of a mobile is expressed as ndn+n, just like hit
points and mana.  It is very important to stay close to the values 
recommended, in particular where the damage bonus is concerned, or the 
mobile's balance will be skewed.

Damage Types
A mobile's damage type defines three things: what message is seen when
it attacks in combat, what armor class is used to defend against the
attack, and what type of resistance or vulnerability affects the damage 
received from the attack.  The following damage types are supported, listed by 
the type of attack and the damage messaged sent (if a name follows the damage 
message, you should use that name in your area file, otherwise just use the 
message itself). If you can't find a damage type that fits your mobiles, by 
all means make a new one (but be sure to note that a new damage type was added 
and how it should be defined, or your mobile will not function properly!)

piercing attacks (pierce ac):
bite                    pierce                  sting
chomp                   scratch                 thrust
peck                    stab

bashing attacks (bash ac):
beating                 crush                   smash
blast                   peck(peckb)             suction
pound                   punch                   thwack
charge                  slap

slashing attacks (slash ac):
claw                    grep                    slice
cleave                  slash                   whip

acid attacks (magic ac):
acidic bite (acbite)    digestion               slime

cold attacks (magic ac):
chill                   freezing bite (frbite)

energy attacks (magic ac):
magic                   wrath

fire attacks (magic ac):
flame                   flaming bite (flbite)

holy attacks (magic ac):
divine power (divine)

lightning attacks (magic ac):
shock                   shocking bite(shbite)

negative attacks (magic ac):
life drain (drain)

The acceptable kinds of damage (some with no damage messages as yet)
bash                    disease                 light
pierce                  drowning                lightning
slash                   energy                  mental
acid                    fire                    negative
charm                   harm                    poison
cold                    holy                    sound

Harm, disease, and poison are generally used only on spells, but are
included here on the outside chance that a mobile might need them.

This list is by no means exhaustive, so please feel free to expand it as
your write your area.

IX.  Armor Classes
In order, the 4 armor class values for a mobile are piercing (i.e.
daggers and spears), bashing (i.e. clubs, rocks), slashing (swords and axes), 
and magical (everything else).  Usually the first three will be fairly close 
to each other (it's nice to have them be a little different, however), and the 
magical AC will be considerably weaker.  Please adhere to the AC guidelines 
set out in the appendix dealing with recommended values for such.

X. Offensive flags, Vulnerabilities, Resistances and Immunities:

Offensive Flags
Offensive flags control mobile behavior in combat -- allowing some
variety in how your mobiles fight back against players.  A typical mobile 
should have a few (2-3) attack abilities and one or none defensive abilities, 
more skilled mobiles may have more, but try not to make them too flexible.

The following offensive flags are available, although not all are currently 
active (please use them anyway if they are appropriate, as they will be 
enabled at some future date):

A  area attack  Mobile hits all characters fighting against it. Very
B  backstab     Mobile can backstab to start a combat
C  bash         Mobile can bash characters off their feet
D  berserk      Mobile may go berserk in a fight
E  disarm       Mobile can disarm _without_ a weapon wielded**
F  dodge        Mobile dodges blows
G  fade*        Mobile can fade "out of phase" to avoid blows
H  fast         Mobile is faster than most others, so has extra attacks
I  kick         Mobile can kick in combat for extra damage
J  kick dirt    Mobile kicks dirt, blinding opponents
K  parry        Mobile can parry _without_ a weapon wielded**
L  rescue*      Mobile may rescue allies in a fight
M  tail*        Mobile can legsweep with its tail or tentacles
N  trip         Mobile trips in combat
O  crush*       Mobile can crush opponents in its arms

*    not yet enabled
**   warrior and thief mobs (see action bits) can disarm and parry
     with a weapon wielded automatically

Offensive flags also control the assisting behavior of a mobile, by
using the following flags:

P  all          Mobile helps all other mobiles in combat
Q  align        Mobile assists mobiles of like alignment
R  race         Mobile will assist other mobiles of the same race
S  players      Mobile will assist players (by race/alignment)
T  guard        Mobile assists as a cityguard
U  vnum         Mobile assists mobiles of the same number only

Assisting by race and vnum are by the far the most common assist types.
Mobiles also assist mobiles in the same group, as defined by the group

Notes: The area attack and fast flags are quite powerful, and mustn't be
    overused. Only the most powerful mobiles should be capable of area
    attack, and only mobiles that really are faster than most should be
    fast.  Proper assist flag setting can greatly enhance the
    cooperation within an area.

Example: An orc might have bash, kick, and kick dirt (it will probably
be a warrior, so will parry and disarm if armed), and will assist by
race and alignment, for an offensive flag of CIJQR. There is no limit to
the number of offensive flags that may be set on a mobile, but be sure
not to use the same letter twice.

Immunities, resistances, and vulnerabilities
Mobiles have differing immunities, resistances, and vulnerabilites both
to better explain certain creatures (i.e. dragons) and to make fighting
them take a little more strategy than just mindlessly pumping out damage.  
Most normal mobiles probably won't have much in the way of these flags, so 
don't add flags without sound reason.  It's important to make shopkeeper-type 
mobiles (as well as guild masters, healers, et cetera) immune to summon, 
charm, magic, and weapons (immunity flag ABCD) just to insure that they cannot 
be killed.  Similarly, weak, low-level mobiles (goblins, for example) might be 
made vulnerable to magic just to accent their weakness. All three flags share 
the same fields, which are as follows:

A  summon       Summoning and gating magic
B  charm        Charm spells (the beguiling spell group)
C  magic        All magic (be very careful using this flag)
D  weapons      All physical attacks (be very careful using this flag)
E  bash         Blunt weapons
F  pierce       Piercing weapons
G  slash        Slashing weapons
H  Fire         Flame and heat attacks and spells
I  Cold         Cold and ice attacks and spells
J  Lightning    Electrical attacks and spells
K  Acid         Corrosive attacks and spells
L  Poison       Venoms and toxic vapors
M  Negative     Life draining attacks and spells, or unholy energies
N  Holy         Holy or blessed attacks
O  Energy       Generic magical force (i.e. magic missile)
P  Mental       Mental attacks (such as a mind flayer's mind blasts)
Q  Disease      Disease, from the common cold to the black death
R  Drowning     Watery attacks and suffocation
S  Light        Light-based attacks, whether blinding or cutting
T  Sound        Sonic attacks and weapons, or deafening noises
X  Wood         Wooden weapons and creatures
Y  Silver       Silver or mithril weapons and creatures
Z  Iron         Iron and steel weapons and creatures

Note: Resist the temptation to make "Achilles Heel" style mobiles, that
is creatures that are immune (or almost immune) to all but a single
attack type. Such mobiles are extremely boring to fight, and ultimately
not very hard to defeat.  Strive to make a balanced mobile, with no flags that 
aren't explainable by its nature.

Important Note: the two generic categories (weapon and magic) are merged
with more specific flags, so that a mobile which is (for example) immune
to magic but vulnerable to fire will take normal damage from fire.

Example: a fire demon might be immune to fire and negative energy (HM),
resistant to mental attacks and weapons (DP), and vulnerable to holy  attacks 
as well as cold (IN).

XI.  Start position, Default position, Gender, Treasure

start and default position
The start position is the position a mobile will be loaded in, the
default position is the position it returns to after a fight. These are often 
the same, but a sleeping mobile (for example) is not likely to go back to 

The acceptable positions are stand, sit, rest, and sleep.

Mobile sex (as in gender, mobiles don't reproduce) can be none, male,
female, or either (either will be set randomly for each mobile of that type 
which is loaded).  It has no real game effects, but does add color.  It's a 
good idea to make generic mobiles (i.e. rabbits) sex 'either', just for 

The average treasure carried by the mobile, in silver pieces.  Most
mobiles should carry no more than 100 coins per level, and usually much less 
unless they are supposed to be wealthy.  Non-intelligent mobiles should 
usually have no treasure.

XII. Form, Part, Size, Material

Form flags

The forms flag is used to define a body form for your mobile, and also
related data like what happens to its corpse when it dies, and whether or not 
it is edible.  Much of the forms code is not yet implemented, but please be as 
thorough as possible when defining your mobile, as it will all be used at some 
future point in time. The acceptable flags for body form are as follows (use 
your best judgment to determine which flags should be mutually exclusive):

corpse-related flags:

A  edible       Mobile can be eaten
B  poison       Mobile is poisonous when eaten (should also be edible)
C  magical*     Mobile's magic nature causes strange effects when eaten
D  vanishes*    Mobile vanishes after death (i.e. a wraith)
E  other*       Mobile is not flesh and blood (defined by material type)

form-related flags:
G  animal       Mobile is a "dumb" animal
H  sentient     Mobile is capable of higher reasoning
I  undead       Mobile is an undead, and not truly alive at all
J  construct    Mobile is a magical construct, such as a golem
K  mist         Mobile is a partially material mist
L  intangible   Mobile is immaterial (like a ghost)
M  biped        Mobile is bipedal (like a human)
N  centaur      Mobile has a humanoid torso, but a beast's lower body
O  insect       Mobile is an insect
P  spider       Mobile is an arachnid
Q  crustacean   Mobile is a crustacean (i.e. a crab or lobster)
R  worm         Mobile is a worm, that is a tube-shaped invertebrate
S  blob         Mobile is a formless blob (when used with mist, a cloud)
V  mammal       Mobile is a mammal
W  bird         Mobile is a bird
X  reptile      Mobile is a reptile (and should be cold-blooded)
Y  snake        Mobile is a snake (and should be a reptile)
Z  dragon       Mobile is a dragon
a  amphibian    Mobile is an amphibian (and should be able to swim)
b  fish         Mobile is a fish (and should be able to swim)
c  cold blood   Mobile is cold-blooded, cannot be seen with infravis.

* Not yet implemented

parts flags
The body parts flag is used to detail what limbs and organs a creature
has, and currently has no game effect beyond determining what hits the ground 
when you kill a monster.  In the future, body parts will also determine what 
can be worn by the creature in question, and possibly special attacks (i.e. 
the tail attack) that the mobile may do, so please do try to be thorough in 
describing your mobile's body parts.  The following body parts are defined:

A  head         Mobile has a head
B  arms         Mobile has arm(s) (usually assumed to be 2)
C  legs         Mobile has leg(s)
D  heart        Mobile has a heart
E  brains       Mobile has brains (not all mobs with heads have brains)
F  guts         Mobile has intestines
G  hands        Mobile has hands capable of manipulating objects
H  feet         Mobile has feet
I  fingers      Mobile has fingers capable of wearing rings
J  ear          Mobile has ear(s)
K  eye          Mobile has eye(s)
L  tongue       Mobile has a _long_ tongue (like a lizard)
M  eyestalks    Mobile has eyestalks (it should also have eyes)
N  tentacles    Mobile has one or more tentacles
O  fins         Mobile has fins
P  wings        Mobile has wings
Q  tail         Mobile has a usable tail (no stubs)
U  claws        Mobile has combat-capable claws
V  fangs        Mobile has combat-capable teeth
W  horns        Mobile has horns, not necessarily dangerous ones
X  scales       Mobile is covered with scales
Y  tusks        Mobile has some teeth elongated into tusks

The size of the mobile has many game effects, and should be chosen
The acceptable sizes are as follows:
tiny: small birds and anything smaller
small: large birds (ducks and up) to halflings
medium: elves and dwarves to humans
large: ogres, gnolls, and other large humanoids
huge: giants, small dragons, and wyverns
giant: for VERY large critters, i.e. dragons, titans, and the biggest

The material type for mobiles is not currently supported. It should be
left blank (0) for flesh-and-blood creatures, or spirits, but golems and
other animated beings should have a material appropriate to their body
construction (i.e. stone, iron, diamond). Put the material in single
quotes if it is longer than one word.

Appendix A:  Recommended Values
The following values should be followed closely for all mobiles -- try
not to go more than 1 level away from the recommended values unless you are 
absolutely sure you want your mobile to be harder or easier than a default 
monster. In particular, avoid making them easier.  Certain action flags 
(namely the 4 class-related flags) can modify the recommendations, they are 
explained in detail at the end of this section.

level  hit pts    ac    damage          level  hit pts    ac    damage
  1   2d6+10      9     1d4+0            31   6d12+928    -10   4d6+9
  2   2d7+21      8     1d5+0            32  10d10+1000   -10   6d4+9
  3   2d6+35      7     1d6+0            33  10d10+1100   -11   6d4+10
  4   2d7+46      6     1d5+1            34  10d10+1200   -11   4d7+10
  5   2d6+60      5     1d6+1            35  10d10+1300   -11   4d7+11

  6   2d7+71      4     1d7+1            36  10d10+1400   -12   3d10+11
  7   2d6+85      4     1d8+1            37  10d10+1500   -12   3d10+12
  8   2d7+96      3     1d7+2            38  10d10+1600   -13   5d6+12
  9   2d6+110     2     1d8+2            39  15d10+1700   -13   5d6+13
 10   2d7+121     1     2d4+2            40  15d10+1850   -13   4d8+13

 11   2d8+134     1     1d10+2           41  25d10+2000   -14   4d8+14
 12   2d10+150    0     1d10+3           42  25d10+2250   -14   3d12+14
 13   2d10+170   -1     2d5+3            43  25d10+2500   -15   3d12+15
 14   2d10+190   -1     1d12+3           44  25d10+2750   -15   8d4+15
 15   3d9+208    -2     2d6+3            45  25d10+3000   -15   8d4+16

 16   3d9+233    -2     2d6+4            46  25d10+3250   -16   6d6+16
 17   3d9+258    -3     3d4+4            47  25d10+3500   -17   6d6+17
 18   3d9+283    -3     2d7+4            48  25d10+3750   -18   6d6+18
 19   3d9+308    -4     2d7+5            49  50d10+4000   -19   4d10+18
 20   3d9+333    -4     2d8+5            50  50d10+4500   -20   5d8+19

 21   4d10+360   -5     4d4+5            51  50d10+5000   -21   5d8+20
 22   5d10+400   -5     4d4+6            52  50d10+5500   -22   6d7+20
 23   5d10+450   -6     3d6+6            53  50d10+6000   -23   6d7+21
 24   5d10+500   -6     2d10+6           54  50d10+6500   -24   7d6+22
 25   5d10+550   -7     2d10+7           55  50d10+7000   -25   10d4+23

 26   5d10+600   -7     3d7+7            56  50d10+7500   -26   10d4+24
 27   5d10+650   -8     5d4+7            57  50d10+8000   -27   6d8+24
 28   6d12+703   -8     2d12+8           58  50d10+8500   -28   5d10+25
 29   6d12+778   -9     2d12+8           59  50d10+9000   -29   8d6+26
 30   6d12+853   -9     4d6+8            60  50d10+9500   -30   8d6+28

Thief* mobiles should read their hp, ac, and damage at one level lower
Mage mobiles read hp and ac at one level lower, and damage three levels
Cleric mobiles read damage at two levels lower
Warrior mobiles read hit points one level higher
Armor class vs. magical attacks should be computed by this formula:
(ac - 10) / n + 10, where n is 4 for most mobiles, 3 for thieves and
clerics, and 2 for mages.

Remember, +hit should only be given to very exceptional mobiles.

* a thief mobile either has ACT_THIEF set or is decidedly thief-like in
nature. The same holds true for the other modifiers.

Appendix B: Removing Flags
There are times when a mobile will clearly belong to a certain race, but
for whatever reason you will not it to have certain flags belonging to
that race.  For examples, dragons may normally be resistant to fire, but you 
may wish to make a white dragon that is vulnerable to fire and immune to cold.  
To remove flags from the mobile, add flag removal commands at the end of the 
entry (below the form/parts/size/material line).

The base syntax is:
F <flag type> <flags>

Flag type may be either action, affect, offensive, immunity, resistance,
vulnerability, form, or parts ( usually just written as act, aff, off,
imm, res, vul, for, and par).

For example, to make a dragon that is not vulnerable to cold or
resistant to fire, use:

F res H
F vul I

More than one flag can be removed on the same line, as long as they are
all part of the same flag group.  So to remove fast and dodge from a wolf, you 
would type:

F off FH

Don't be afraid to move flags if you have to, and absolutely do NOT define a 
new race just because a few of the default flags don't agree with you.


I.      #<vnum>
II.     <object_name>~
III.    <object_short>~
IV.     <object_long>~
V.      <material>~
VI.     <type> <extra:flags> <wear:flags>
VII.      <V0> <V1> <V2> <V3> <V4>
VIII.   <level> <weight> <cost>
**IX    <applies>
**XI.   <flags>
**XII.  <extended object description keyword>~
        <extended object description text>

* varies by object type, may be nonexistent

** optional


I.  The vnum is the number used to reference your object.  There may
only be one object of any given vnum at one time.  (see glossary)

II.  This is a list of names by which the object may be referenced.  Do
not forget to put a tilde at the end of it.

III.  This is the short description of the object.  It is seen when the
object is used, picked up or worn.  Example: a short sword named
'Nightbringer', THE Long Sword, a scale mail coif, etc.  Do not forget to put 
a tilde at the end.

IV.  This is the description seen when the object is on the ground.
Example:  A short sword lies here on the ground.~  Do not forget to put a 
tilde at the end.

V.  This is the substance of which the object is composed.  Ie: a sword
might have material steel~, or a cloak have material wool~.  If you must 
define a new material type in your area, go ahead, but please make a note of 
this to the person you are submitting the area to.  A listing of material 
types that are already defined follows:

plastic slime       jelly       wax     rubber
oil     balm        cream       hard/soft leather
kid leather fur     snakeskin   gut     food
meat        bread       wood        hardwood    softwood
bamboo  ebony       cork        horn        light laen
sponge  elastic silk        satin       lace
wool        linen       canvas  cloth       velvet
felt        paper       parchment   vellum  hemp
feathers    webbing cardboard   steel       gold
silver  mithril platinum    iron        lead
copper  electrum    bronze  brass       wire
tin     pewter  metal       dark laen   porcelain
ivory       marble  stone       quartz  corundum
flint       lodestone   granite enamel  obsidian
adamantite  glass       pottery crystal ice
bone        shell       coral       energy  fire
air     water       acid        coal        sandstone
clay        ash     earth       diamond etherealness

dragonscale, blue dragonscale, black dragonscale, white dragonscale, red

Although you would normally have to place multiple words in single
quotes, in this instance, do NOT.  Do not forget to end the material type with 
a tilde.

VII.  Type, Extras, Wear

Type determines what kind of object you are creating.  A list of item types 
used by Rom 2.4x follows:


* indicates that the item has special values, examples of which will be given 
at the end of this section.

Many of the item types have no practical purpose aside from to control what 
shops they may be sold at.  A jeweler might buy only jewelry, and not gems or 
treasure, for example.

V0 through V4

Items marked with an asterisk in the Item Types section have special values 
that must be given in the area file.  Items not marked with an asterisk have 
*no* special settings and a 0 must be placed in each slot.

Example of an item with no special values:

ring protection~
a ring of protection~
an enchanted ring of protection sits on the floor.~
treasure G AB
0 0 0 0 0 <-- vo through v4 slots held with zeroes
8 10 640 P

Examples follow, with explanation of what each special value denotes:


scimitar blade~
Hassan's scimitar~
Hassan's scimitar lies upon the ground, waiting for its owner.~
weapon BI AN
sword 4 10 cleave EF
42 450 5600 P
scimitar blade~
It is quite heavy.  The blade is made of some metal that you can't even
spell.  The edge of the blade looks as if it could cut through anything
or anyone.
For weapons, v0 is the weapon type (sword in the example), v1 is the
number of dice (4 here), v2 is the number of sides each die has (10),
v3 is the damage message (cleave) and v4 holds the weapon flags (E is vorpal, 
F is two-handed).  Acceptable damage messages are listed in the mobiles 
section, and a listing of acceptable weapon flags follows:

      A   flaming     D  sharp      G  shocking (electrical)
      B   frost       E  vorpal     H  poisoned
      C   vampiric    F  two-handed
        (energy drain)


jacket scale mail~
a scale mail jacket~
A scale mail jacket is lying on the ground.~
armor 0 AD
3 4 4 0 2
5 160 850 G

V0 is armor vs. pierce, v1 is armor vs. bash, v2 is armor vs. slash,
v3 is armor vs. exotic weapons, v4 is bulk.  Bulk is currently unused
by the code, but please enter it so that when it is implemented, your
file will be current.  A listing of example bulks follows:

clothing            0       buckler     0
hard leather        1       small   shield  1
scale/chainmail     2       medium shield   2
platemail           3       kite shield     3
light plate armor       4       tower shield    4
heavy plate armor       5


a hooded brass lantern~
A hooded brass lantern has been left here.~
light 0 A
0 0 250 0 0
0 40 75 P
They say, "Use 'hold lantern' to activate."
It is a large and robust but somewhat battered oil lantern made from brass,
equipped with a handle to make it handy and a hood to protect its flame.
Some letters have been scratched on its bottom.

V0 and V1 are empty, held with a 0.  V2 is light duration in game hours,
(250 hours in this case).  If V2 is set to -1 the light is permanent.
V3 and V4 are empty and held with zeroes.


silver coins~
the silver coins~
A lot of silver is here.~
money 0 A
1000 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 P
Looks like at least a thousand coins.

V0 is the silver value (in this case, 1000) of the money object.  V1
is the gold value (remember that Rom 2.4x uses both silver and
gold coins).  V2, V3 and V4 are held with zeroes.

Drink containers:

skin water buffalo~
a buffalo water skin~
A bloated dead buffalo is on the floor.~
drink 0 A
64 64 'water' 0 0
0 40 24 G

V0 is the maximum amount of liquid the container may hold (64 here).
V1 is the current amount it holds (64 here, as the container is full,
but it will decrease as the player drinks from it.  You may also
make half-full containers that may be filled up.)  V2 is the type
of liquid the container holds when it is loaded (water here).  V3 has
two settings: 0 for normal and A for poisoned.  V4 is unused.

A listing of acceptable liquid types follows:

    Name               Color        Proof  Hunger Thirst

    water                  clear           0,   1,    10,
    beer                   amber          12,   1,         8,
    red wine               burgundy       30,   1,         8,
    ale                    brown          15,   1,         8,
    dark ale               dark           16,   1,         8,
    whisky                 golden        120,   1,         5,
    lemonade               pink            0,   1,         9,
    firebreather           boiling       190,   0,         4,
    local specialty        clear         151,   1,         3,
    slime mold juice       green           0,   2,      -8,
    milk                   white           0,   2,         9,
    tea                    tan             0,   1,         8,
    coffee                 black           0,   1,         8,
    blood                  red             0,   2,      -1,
    salt water             clear           0,   1,      -2,
    coke                   brown           0,   2,         9,
    root beer              brown           0,   2,         9,
    elvish wine            green          35,   2,         8,
    white wine             golden         28,   1,         8,
    champagne              golden         32,   1,         8,
    mead                   honey-colored  34,   2,         8,
    rose wine              pink           26,   1,         8,
    benedictine wine       burgundy       40,   1,         8,
    vodka                  clear         130,   1,         5,
    cranberry juice        red             0,   1,         9,
    orange juice           orange          0,   2,         9,
    absinthe               green         200,   1,         4,
    brandy                 golden         80,   1,         5,
    aquavit                clear         140,   1,         5,
    schnapps               clear          90,   1,         5,
    icewine                purple         50,   2,         6,
    amontillado            burgundy       35,   2,         8,
    sherry                 red            38,   2,         7,
    framboise              red            50,   1,         7,
    rum                    amber         151,   1,         4,
    cordial                clear         100,   1,         5,


19 2
fountain water~
a fountain~
A large fountain is here gurgling out an endless stream of water.~
fountain G 0
100000 100000 'water' 0 0
0 0 0 P

V0 and V1 for fountains are technically set the same as drink containers
(max capacity and current capacity) but since a fountain holds an
endless supply of liquid, usually V0 and V1 are set to some arbitrarily
large number.  Any number above zero should work fine.  :)  V2
is the type of liquid the fountain holds.  Any liquid in the table
associated with drink containers will work in a fountain.  V3
and V4 are held with zeroes.

(And yes, you can have fountains of wine, or fountains of coffee :)

Wands and Staves:

wand magic missile missiles~
a wand of magic missiles~
a wooden stick lies on the ground.~
wand G AO
4 10 10 'magic missile' 0
2 10 320 P
It has a little note that says 'point this end at target'.

Wands and staves have exactly the same v0-v4 formatting.  V0 is
spell level (the example wand having a 4th level magic missile),
v1 is the maximum number of charges, v2 is the current number of
charges (the mud will decrement the charge number as the wand is used,
but you could also make a half-charged wand that could be refilled
with the 'recharge' spell.)  V3 is the spell name, which must be
enclosed in quotes.  V4 is unused and held with a zero.

Potions, Scrolls and Pills:

potion yellow~
a yellow potion of see invisible~
A small yellow potion has carelessly been left here.~
potion G AO
12 'detect invis' '' '' ''
0 10 220 P
potion yellow~
The potion has a small label 'Detect The Invisible'.

V0 holds the level of the spell (this potion having a level 12
detect invisible spell in it).  v1 through v4 hold the spells --
potions, scrolls and pills may have up to 4 spells in them.  Should
you not wish to have all four slots filled, use empty quotes (as
shown in the above example, a potion with only one spell) as


a bag~
A small bag.~
container 0 A
50 0 0 5 100
0 10 9 G

V0 holds the maximum weight that the container may store.  V1 holds container 
flags, a list of which follows.  V2 is unused.  V3 holds the maximum weight of 
a given object that the container may store.  (i.e.: the above bag may be able 
to hold 50 pounds, but the opening of the bag is so small that nothing larger 
than a 5 pound object can fit through it.  The bag could then hold up to
10 5 pound objects, 50 1 pound objects, some combination thereof, or some 
other combination of weights.)  V4 holds the weight multiplier of the 
container, which is a number that may not be less than 1.

A weight multiplier of 100 means that the objects, while inside the
container, weigh 100% of their normal weight.  If v4 were set to,
for example, 75, the objects would weigh 75% of normal (a 100 pound
object would have an effective weight of 75 pounds); if v4 were set
to 125, objects would weigh 125% of normal (the 100 pound object would
weigh 125 pounds).  Be conservative with weight multipliers --
a container with, for example, a weight multiplier of 1% is an extremely
powerful item!


danish blueberry~
a blueberry danish~
A scrumptious blueberry danish is here.~
food 0 A
8 6 0 0 0
0 10 5 P

V0 holds the number of game hours the food will keep the person who
eats it full.  V1 holds the number of hours it will keep the person
from getting hungry.  (Think of it as the distinction between food
caloric value and food density -- pasta is both dense and high
calorie, so the fullness and hunger values of a plate of linguine
should be roughly the same -- whereas cotton candy as a high calorie
value but a low density, so you can eat a lot more of it before you
get full, but the sugar will keep you from feeling hungry.)  V2 is
unused and held with a zero.  V3 is either 0 for normal or A for
poisoned.  V4 is unused.


black hole~
a black hole~
A swirling black hole spins in the centre of the room.~
portal 0 0
0 0 0 P

V0 is the number of charges the portal has (for limited use portals) --
similar to how a wand or staff has charges.  Set it to -1 for a permanent 
portal.  V1 is exit flags -- see the section of #ROOMS dealing with doors for 
a listing of usable exit flags.  V2 is gate flags, a listing of which is at 
the end of this example.  V3 is the vnum of the room that the portal goes to.  
V4 is unused, and held with a zero.

Gate flags:

A   Normal exit (should be set if no other portal flags are used)
B   No curse (can't be used by people who are cursed)
C   Go with (portal entrance moves with the person using it)
D   Gate buggy (chance it will teleport the person to a random room)
E   Random (will always teleport the person to a random room)


white wicker couch~
a white wicker couch~
A white wicker couch with pink cushions is tucked into a corner.~
furniture 0 0
2 200 BEHKN 100 100
0 0 0 P

V0 is the number of people that can fit onto the piece of furniture
(in the case of the couch, 2 people).  V1 is the total weight the
piece of furniture can support (200 pounds here, meaning while in
theory 2 people can sit on the couch, the people sitting on it can't
weigh more than a total of 200 pounds).  V2 is furniture flags, which
determine the message to the room when the person uses the furniture
in various different ways.  The couch can be sat on, rested on, slept
on, stood on, and have things put on it.  However, a bathtub might be
sit in, rest in, have no setting for sleep (sleeping in a bathtub is
a bad idea) and allow things to be put in it -- hence the configurability on 
the messages.  You can only flag the furniture with one of each type of 
message -- one sit, one rest, one sleep, one stand and one put -- and you 
don't have to use all of them, like I said in my bathtub example.  V3 
determines how much of a healing bonus or penalty the person receives for 
using the furniture -- look at the section dealing with heal/mana 
bonus/penalty under #ROOMS.  V4 determines the mana recovery bonus or penalty.  
100 is normal heal/mana recovery.

A list of furniture flags for V2 follows:

A   Stand at
B   Stand on
C   Stand in
D   Sit at
E   Sit on
F   Sit in
G   Rest at
H   Rest on
I   Rest in
J   Sleep at
K   Sleep on
L   Sleep in
M   Put at
N   Put on
O   Put in
P   Put inside

(Note that the Put flags in furniture are not yet enabled, but please design 
your furniture using them anyhow, so that when the code is written, your area 
will be current to it.)

Extra flags

Extra flags are visual effects and other controls on how the object may
be used.  A listing of extra flags follows:

(Glowing)           A       (Humming)       B
Dark (hidden)       C       Evil            E
Invis               F       Magic           G
Nodrop          H       Bless           I
Anti-good           J       Anti-evil       K
Anti-Neutral        L       Noremove        M
Inventory           N       Nopurge     O
Rot_death           P       Vis_death       Q
Nosac               R       Nolocate        T
Melt_drop           U       Sell extract    W
Burn proof          Y

Items with applies or other magical effects should be flagged magic.  
Anti-good/evil/neutral prevents the item from being worn by persons of those 
aligns -- you may mix and match two of three, but do NOT flag an item as 
unwearable by all three aligns, it will cause problems for the mud.  Inventory 
should usually be present on items given to a shopkeeper, and NEVER on any 
other object.  It ensures that the item never runs out in a shop.  A shop item 
not flagged inventory will only be able to be sold once.  Nopurge means that 
the 'purge' command cannot affect this item unless it is directly purged -- 
stationary objects like furniture should be flagged this.  Rot death places a 
short timer on the object when the mobile carrying it dies and it 
disintegrates when the timer is up.  Vis death means that the item is 
undetectable until after the mobile carrying it is dead.  Nosac means the item 
cannot be sacrificed.  Nolocate prevents locate object from finding the 
object.  Melt drop means that the item dissolves when dropped (used for sub 
issue eq to prevent clutter).  Sell extract ensures that the item will be 
purchased at the full value it was sold at (this should ONLY be used for gem 
stores where people may convert gold, which is very heavy, into more valuable 
and light gemstones).  Burn proof makes the item invulnerable to damage by 
fire or acid.

Wear flags

Wear flags determine where an object may be worn.  Note that if you want
the item to be able to be picked up it should be flagged Take, AS WELL AS 
having a wear location flagged if the object should be worn.  Leaving off a 
take flag but flagging it wearable will make it impossible to pick up the 
object should it be dropped.  So to make a ring that can be picked up and worn 
on finger it should be flagged AB.  Note that items can not have multiple wear 
locations (take does not count as a wear location, it only determines if the 
item can be picked up).

A     Take              H    Hands           O  Hold
B     Finger            I    Arms            Q  Float
C     Neck              J    Shield
D     Body              K    About body
E     Head              L    Waist
F     Legs              M    Wrist
G     Feet              N    Wield

IX.  Level, Weight, Cost

Level determines how high of level a character must be to use an item.
Higher level items should be more powerful, and lower level correspondingly 
less powerful.

Weight determines how heavy an object is, which factors into how much a
character may carry.  It is entered into the area file as tenths of
pounds, so a three pound dagger would have an entry of 30.

Cost determines how much an item may be sold to a shop for (although shops 
virtually always buy for less than they will sell at) or how much a shop will 
charge for it.  When in doubt on an item sold in a shop, overprice it; when in 
doubt on an item that can be found in an area, underprice it.

The fourth slot on objects is timer, which is not implemented, and should be 
set to P.  So far as I'm aware, setting it to anything other than P can cause 
the area to not boot.

XI.  Applies

apply <location> <modifier>

Location is the type of affect being placed on the item.  Modifier is a
positive or negative number that will increase or decrease the location
in question.  A listing of locations follows:

1   Strength             12  Mana
2   Dexterity            13  Hitpoints
3   Intelligence         14  Movement
4   Wisdom               17  AC
5   Constitution         18  Hitroll
6   Sex                  19  Damroll
7   Charisma         20  Spell (includes rods, staves, etc.)

apply 1 1
apply 13 4
The above would be the pink ice ring's affects.

XII.  Flags

flag <affect immune resist vulnerability> <location> <modifier> <bits>

Flags let you put what are usually perm aff bits as well as
immune/resist and vulnerability bits when wearing an item.  Note that you may 
also specify a location here (or 0 if none) so that spells with two effects 
can be done (like a ring of haste would have a dex modifier in addition to the 
bit).  A listing of affects follows:

affect bits:
 *A  Blind           *I  Faerie_fire         Q  Hide       *Y  Weaken
  B  Invisible        J  Infrared           *R  Sleep       Z  Dark_vis
  C  Detect_evil      K  Curse              *S  Charm      *a  Berserk
  D  Detect_invis   **L  Flaming             T  Flying    **b  Swim
  E  Detect_magic    *M  Poisoned            U  Pass_door   c  Regen.
  F  Detect_hidden    N  Prot_evil           V  Haste       d  Slow
  G  Detect_good      O  Prot_good          *W  Calm
  H  Sanctuary        P  Sneak              *X  Plague
 * items will be detrimental to the character, possibly for cursed
 ** not yet implemented

flag affect 2 3 V       dex+3   and AFF_HASTE
flag affect 0 0 CDEFG   a true sight item
flag immune 0 0 CD      immune to weapons and magic!   :)

For obvious reasons, be VERY careful in creating permanent affected items.
A permanent sanctuary item, for instance, would be of questionable balance and 
will likely be stripped from your area unless you have some extreme 
justification for it.

See the #MOBILES section for a listing of imm/resist/vul flags.

XIII.  Extra descriptions.

extra description~
Yep, this is an extra desc alright.

extra signifies the start of an extra description.  'extra description'
are the keywords that 'examine' will accept.  Typing 'examine extra' or
'examine description' would yield the output of 'Yep, this is an extra desc 

For further examples, see the section dealing with extra descs in #ROOMS.


II.  The #ROOMS section

I.     <#vnum>
II.    <room header>~
III.   <room description>
IV.    <room flags>
{V.    <exit direction>
*VI.   <extended description of what is seen in that direction>
*VII.  <door keyword>
VIII.  <door state> <exit vnum> <key vnum>}
*IX.   <extra>
       <extended room description keywords>~
       <extended room description data>~
*X.    <mana recovery adjust>  <healing recovery adjust>
*XI.     <clan rooms>
XII.    <S>

* denotes optional, not necessary for the room to function.

Sections that are enclosed in braces must be kept together, and placed in the 
order that the above example shows.  Example:  if there are doors north, south 
and west, all of three sets of door data must go before the extended 
description related information.


The Lego temple~
You stand in a tiny, red temple; built entirely from Lego bricks. It is,
sadly, not a very interesting place, and perhaps you should leave through
the portal which leads south to a sunny garden.
0 BC 0
You see the grand portal of the Lego church. Beyond is an inviting
portal grand~
1 1001 1007
The portal is high and arched, built out of lego bricks of the finest
The bricks are all in bright different colours.
M 110 H 90
<data for the next room>

I.  The vnum is the number used to reference your room.  There may only
be one room of any given vnum at one time.  (see glossary)

II.  This is the label of the room, and should be short.  Characters
with 'brief' mode on will only see this section of the room.  Do not forget to 
end it with a tilde.

III.  This is the room description.  It should be a minimum of three
lines, preferably at least four or five, but not more than eight to ten.   (if 
you want more information than that, do it in extra descriptions)  Do not 
forget to end it with a tilde.

IV.  Room flags, sector types

The first slot of line IV is a hangover from old file format, retained
for compatibility.

The second slot is room flags.  A listing of room flags follows:

DARK           (A)  A light source must be carried to see in this room
NO_MOB         (C)  Monsters cannot enter this room
INDOORS        (D)  Room is inside (i.e. not affected by weather)
PRIVATE        (J)  Room is limited to two characters (i.e. chat rooms)
SAFE           (K)  Safe from pkilling and aggressive mobs
SOLITARY       (L)  One character only can enter this room
PET_SHOP       (M)  see addendum about pet shops
NO_RECALL      (N)  players cannot use the 'recall' command to leave
this room

Pet shops:  the room that the pets are to be sold in must be flagged
act_pet.  However, the pets themselves must be loaded into the sequentially 
next room (ie if the shop is 1036, the pets MUST be loaded into 1037 for the 
shop to work).

The third slot is sector type.  A listing of sector types follows:

Sector types:

type       number  move pts  notes
INSIDE      0         1
CITY        1         2
FIELD       2         2
FOREST      3         3
HILLS       4         4
MOUNTAIN    5         6
WATER       6         4       swimmable
DEEP WATER  7         -       boat required
AIR         9         -       fly spell required
DESERT     10         9       will eventually affect thirst and recovery

V.  Exit directions

Exit directions are signified by a line with D# on it, with # replaced
by 0 for north, 1 for east, 2 for south, 3 for west, 4 for up and 5 for down.  An exit line containing D2 signifies an exit south.

VI.  Exit descriptions

This section determines what will be seen if a character looks in the
direction the exit designates.  Ie:

You see a river south.

Would be what would be seen if a character typed 'look south' and the
above was the exit description.  Do not forget to put a tilde on the line 

You see a river south.

VII.  Door keyphrase

If the exit you are working on is to be a door, you may define a
keyphrase that the character may access to open the door and will see when he 
opens it.

You see a dusty trap door.
trap door~

as the keyphrase will allow the character to type 'open trap' or 'open
door' or 'open down' to open the entryway, and when they do, they will see the 
message:  'You open the trap door.'

VIII.  Door state, Connecting room vnum, Key vnum

Slot one sets the door as open, closed, locked, etc.  0 denotes an open
door, 1 denotes closed, and 2 denotes closed and locked.

Slot two denotes the vnum of the room that this exit links to.

Slot three denotes the vnum of the key used to unlock the door, if the
door is lockable and if you choose to have a key that allows it to be 

IX.  extra, extra keywords, and extra description text

E denotes the beginning of an extra description.  Extras are used to flesh out 
room descriptions by giving keywords that may be looked at or examined to give 
more information.  Also, to have multiple sets of extras, you must input all 
of the data under independent extra lines.

Example: in the following room description:

You stand under a trellis on which climb beautiful roses.  A lovely
flower garden extends to the north and west of here, and a path leads to a 
small white summerhouse to the south.

with the extended descriptions

beautiful roses~
They smell sweet and are delicately soft to the touch.
It is made of wicker and painted white.

would yield the following result when 'exa beautiful', 'exa roses',
'look beautiful' or 'look roses' was typed:

They smell sweet and are delicately soft to the touch.

or the following if 'look trellis' or 'exa trellis' was typed:

It is made of wicker and painted white.

Do not forget to put a tilde after the keywords or the text.

X.  Mana recovery adjustments, Healing recovery adjustments

The default recovery rate is 100% (normal).  However, you may adjust
recovery of mana or hit points up or down to 1% of normal or 200% of normal.  
To adjust mana, the syntax is M <number>  (ie: M 90 to decrease mana to 90% of 
normal recovery rate) or H <number> to adjust hit point recovery (ie: H 110 to 
increase healing by 10%).


M 75 H 125

Note!  Increasing healing or mana recovery is a room option that should
be used very sparingly.  Decrease of healing/mana recovery may be used more 

XI.  If your mud has clans, you may wish to have clan halls that are restricted from access by anyone who is not a member of that clan.

Example for a room for the hall of clan Moonstone:

clan Moonstone~


S signifies the end of the room.  All rooms MUST be ended with S.


This is the section that installs all the mobiles in their various
locations,equips the mobiles, locks and closes any necessary doors, randomizes 
any random room exits, and generally sets up the area and populates it.

To reset an area, the server executes each command in the list of reset
commands once.  Each area is reset once when the server loads, and again
periodically as it ages.  An area is reset if it is at least 3 area-
minutes old and is empty of players, or if it is 15 area-minutes old and has 
players in it.

An 'area-minute' varies between 30 and 90 seconds of real time, with an
average of 60 seconds.  The variation defeats area time-keepers.

The #RESETS section contains a series of single lines.

The reset commands are:

I.    M    load a mobile into a room
II.   O    load an object into a room
III.  P    put an object in an object (gold in a safe, etc.)
IV.   G    give an object to mobile
V.    E    equip an object to mobile
VI.   D    set state of door
VII.  S    stop (END OF LIST)

Note!  You may put a comment after an asterisk (*) on any line, but NOT
on a line that is blank otherwise.


I.  Loading a mobile into a room

M 0 <mobile vnum> <room vnum> <global mob limit> <local mob limit>

M signifies that a mobile is being loaded.  0 is a placeholder for a no
longer used field.  The third slot is the vnum of the mobile to be loaded; the 
fourth slot is the number of the room that the mobile is being loaded into; 
the fifth slot is the total number of copies of that mobile that may exist in 
the game world; the sixth is the number of copies of that mobile that may 
exist in that room.

Example:  M 0 1000 1000 6 1

Will reset mobile 1000 into room 1000 once, but allow you to place five
other copies of that mobile in other rooms.

Note that if you wish to have multiple copies of the same mobile you
must enter multiple resets for them.  Example:

M 0 1000 1000 6 2
M 0 1000 1000 6 2

Will reset mobile 1000 into room 1000 twice.

II.  Loading an object into a room

O 0 1000 0 1000

O 0 <object vnum> 0 <room vnum>


O denotes that an object is being loaded.  0 in both instances is a
placeholder for a defunct reset slot.  The third slot is the object vnum
and the fifth slot is the room it is being reset into.  Ergo, the above
example will reset object 1000 into room 1000.

That loads (O)bject ZX01 once into room ZX02.  Again, 0 denotes unused.

III.  Putting an object into another object:

P 0 1001 0 1000 3

P denotes that this reset is putting an object into another object.
Both 0 entries denote placeholders for defunct slots.  The third slot is the 
vnum of the object that is being contained, the fifth slot denotes the vnum of 
the container.  The sixth slot denotes the number of copies of the object that 
will be loaded into the container.  The above example will put 3 copies of 
object 1001 into container 1000.

Note!  If you wish to have, for example, five mobiles carrying containers 
called 'backpacks' with 'bread' 'cheese' and 'water jug' items in them, and 
have an abandoned backpack with the same gear as would be in the carried 
backpacks, you are best off making a total of six *individual* 'backpack' 
containers and resetting the *same* 'bread', 'cheese' and 'water' items.

Let's try explaining that one again.  :)

If you wish to have multiple copies of a container resetting with things being 
Put into them, you are in fact having several identical container objects with 
different vnums for the things to be put into.  If you have six backpacks with 
bread, cheese and water resetting into them, after it finds the first backpack 
to place the items into, the mud sometimes becomes confused and misplaces 
items.  If you have different containers, the mud will not become confused.  
We are not sure what causes containers to become confused, and doubtless this 
attempt at explanation is confusing, but hopefully you get the idea.

You may use the same items *going into* the containers but *not* the same 
container item.  Get it?  Good.  :)

IV.  Giving an object to a mobile

G 0 1006 0

G denotes that a give reset to a mobile is being done.  This reset places the 
object being given into the inventory of the mobile.  0 denotes, as before, a 
placeholder for a defunct option.   The third slot in the reset is the vnum of 
the object being given.

Note!  The give reset MUST be placed, in the reset ordering, DIRECTLY
after the loading of the mobile that the object is being given to.  Example:

M 0 1000 1000 6 2 <resetting mob 1000 into room 1000 with a global limit
            of 6 and a local limit of 2>
G 0 1006 0 <places object 1006 into the inventory of the most recently
        loaded mobile>

V.  Equipping an object to a mobile

E 0 1007 0 3

E denotes that an equip reset is being done.  0 denotes unused slots.  The 
third slot indicates the vnum of the object being equipped.  The fifth slot is 
the number of the wear location that is being equipped to (in this instance, 
3, which is <worn on finger>).

Wear flags are as follows:

Left finger  1      Right finger 2
Neck (1)     3      Neck (2)     4
On Torso     5      Head         6
Legs         7      Feet         8
Hands        9      Arms        10
Shield  11      About body  12
Waist       13      Left Wrist  14
Right Wrist 15      Wield       16
Held        17      Floating    18

VI.  Door resets

D 0 1000 1 BC

D denotes that a door reset is being generated.  0 denotes a placeholder
for an unused slot.  The third slot is the vnum of the room that the door 
reset is being generated in.  The fourth slot is the direction of the door 
reset is being generated in (since any room may have up to six doors) and the 
fifth is the condition that the door is being placed in.  The above example 
shows the eastern door of room 1000 being set in a closed and locked position.  
The following list shows the correlating numbers for the door directions:

0  North    1 East  2 South
3 West  4 Up        5 Down

The following is a list of door flags that may be used:

0 -- Normal exit, no door
A -- door that may be opened and closed, but no lock and resets to open
B -- door resets to closed
C -- door that is locked
F -- door with a lock that cannot be picked (key needed to open)
G -- door that the 'pass door' spell will not allow passage through (the
lock may still be picked, however)
H -- lock that is easy to pick *
I -- lock that is hard to pick *
J -- lock that is infuriating to pick *
K -- door that cannot be closed
L -- door that cannot be locked

* not yet implemented, but use them in conjunction with C (door resets
to locked) for when the code is enabled.

So for a closed, locked door that can't be passed through but which is
easy to pick, the flags are BCGH.

Note!  If you have a door going north from room 1001 to room 1002, you must 
also have a door going south from room 1002 to room 1001, unless you wish the 
door in 1001 to be ONE WAY ONLY.

VII.  Ending the resets:


S denotes the end of the #RESETS section.

Remember, for all LIMIT-NUMBERS, a '-1' means an infinite number of the
objects, mobiles, etc. can exist in the world, and the game will keep loading 
up these objects/mobiles.  Keep this in mind, if you are thinking of using a 
'-1' for a limit-number.

It's a good idea to comment your resets thoroughly for debugging

7.  #SHOPS

<mob#> <item types> <profit-buy> <p-sell> <op-hour> <close>


3000  2  3  4 10  0      105  15     0 23   * the wizard

All of these options are on the same line.  0 ends the section.

The first value, the mobile-vnum, is the 'keeper', or the mobile who is
the shopkeeper.  ALL MOBILES with that vnum will be shopkeepers.

The <item types> section designates what the keeper will buy.  He may buy up 
to five types of items, and zeroes must be placed in the shop entry for 
anything less than five.  (The wizard above buys scrolls, wands, staves and 
potions, and a zero is placed in the last option since he only buys four types 
of things.  If all the slots were set to zero, he wouldn't buy anything, but 
he would still sell what he was loaded as having.)

The following is a list of acceptable object numbers and their corresponding 

1   Light
2   Scroll
3   Wand
4   Staff
5   Weapon
8   Treasure
9   Armor
10  Potion
11  Clothing
12  Furniture
15  Container
17  Drink container
22  Boat
26  Pill
28  Map
29  Portal
30  Warpstone
32  Gem
33  Jewelry

(Any item type not listed in the above is not listed either because it is not 
appropriate to have a shopkeeper that would buy that type of item, or because 
that type of item can't be sold (like money :).)

The 'profit-buy' number is a markup for players buying the item, in
percentage points.  100 is nominal price;  150 is 50% markup, and so on.  The 
'profit-sell' number is a markdown for players selling the item, in percentage 
points.  100 is nominal price, 75 is 25% markdown, and so on.  The buying 
markup should be at least 100, generally greater, and the selling markdown 
should be no more than 100, generally lower.

The 'open-hour' and 'close-hour' numbers define the hours when the shopkeeper 
will do business.  For a 24-hour shop, these numbers would be 0 and 23.

Everything beyond 'close-hour' to the end of the line is taken to be a

Note that there is no room number for a shop.  Just load the shopkeeper mobile 
in to the room of your choice, via that #RESETS section, and make the mobile a 
sentinel in the ACT-FLAGS section of the mobile in #MOBILES.  Or, for a 
wandering shopkeeper, just make it non-sentinel.

The objects the shopkeeper sells are exactly those loaded by the 'G' reset 
command in #RESETS for that shopkeeper.  These items replenish automatically.  
If a player sells an object to a shopkeeper, the shopkeeper will keep it for 
resale if he, she, or it doesn't already have an identical object.  The items 
a player sells to a shopkeeper, however, do not replenish.

Shopkeepers should generally be flagged as NO_PURGE.


M <mobvnum> <special>

M 1000 breath_gas

Special procedures are not assigned in the mobile structure itself, but they 
do relate directly to mobiles.  The procedure for assigning procedures will be 
detailed in another document, but the basic function is covered here.

A special procedure gives a mobile some added functionality, allowing it do 
more complicated actions than are normally possible. Examples are Hassan's 
guardian duties, the fido's ability to eat corpses, and the warring mobiles in 
the dangerous neighborhood.  New specials can be requested, but don't rely on 
someone else being willing to code one for you. At this time, no mobile may 
have more than one special procedure.

The following specials are available:

breath_acid      Mobile breathes acid in combat
breath_fire      Mobile breathes fire in combat (area attack)
breath_frost     Mobile breathes frost in combat (area attack)
breath_gas       Mobile breathes poison gas in combat area attack)
breath_lightning Mobile breathes lightning in combat
breath_any       Mobile may use any breath weapon
cast_adept       Mobile casts helpful spells on low-level players
cast_cleric      Mobile casts clerical spells (ALWAYS cleric act flag)
cast_judge       Mobile fires bullets (for Mega-City One only)
cast_mage        Mobile casts mage spells (ALWAYS set the mage act flag)
cast_undead      Mobile casts spells appropriate for the undead
executioner      Mobile attacks Killers and Thieves
fido             Mobile devours corpses
guard            Mobile protects good-aligned people from attack
janitor          Mobile cleans up junk lying on the ground
poison           Mobile has a poison attack
thief            Mobile steals gold (ALWAYS set the thief act flag)
nasty_thief      Mobile attacks, robs, and runs (ALWAYS set thief flag)

The following specials are coded, but should NOT be used because they
are tailored to specific mobiles.  Check them out online for examples of
unique or area-specific specials that can possibly be coded for your mobiles:

cast_judge       Mobile fires bullets (for Mega-City One only)
troll_member     Mobile attacks ogre gang members (gangland mobs only)
ogre_member      Mobile attacks troll gang members (gangland mobs only)
patrolman        Mobile tries to break up fights (gangland mobs only)
mayor            The Midgaard mayor special (opens/closes city gates,

9. Closing your area file:

The syntax to end the file is:


Be sure to put a couple of carriage returns at the end of the file.

F.  Definitions

A vnum is a unique number used to identify a mobile, object or room.
You can use the same vnum for a mob as for an object or for a room (since the 
code keeps track of them separately) but NOT for different mobs, objects or 

A component used in the portal and nexus spells.  Further spell
components will eventually be implemented.  Keep them rare and NEVER describe 
an object in such a way as to suggest that it might be a warpstone.  It should 
be indistinguishable from a normal gem or rock except by identifying it.  Lore 
will eventually identify components (including warpstones) as such.

Mobs will spec_janitor target trash as the first thing to pick up.  It's
the catch-all for objects that fall under no other categories.

Immune to being picked with the pick lock spell.

Role playing games commonly use dice of more or less than six sides for
purpose of generating random numbers for damage, hit probability, etc.
For example, 1d11 (not possible in real life, but possible in the game)
would generate a value from 1 to 11.  2d4 would generate a range from 2 to 8.  Usage of multiple dice generates a belled result where a range generates a linear one (for example, 2d4 averages 5, whereas a range from 1 to 8 averages 4.5).

Mobile or mob
A being/monster within the game capable of the functions the area
builder defines.  Note that mobiles that have ACT_SENTINEL (stay in one place) 
aren't mobile per se, but why quibble?  :)

The jukebox will 'play' songs either in the room you are in or play them loud 
(over the MUSIC channel).  Ask your implementor for a list of songs that the 
jukebox (if used on your mud) uses.

G.  Closing Notes

Make your rooms direction insensitive unless there is only one exit.  If
a room has a south exit and a west exit, the line 'You enter through the
southern door' is a bad line.  However, if the southern door is the only
entrance to the room, it's permissible.  Also, if you are using one way
doors, direction sensitivity is permissible.

Also, a room doesn't know if you've seen it before, so avoid lines like
'you gaze on the mighty mirror of Zenabit for the first time'.

Avoid putting sentiments into the mind of the reader.  If the line has
'you think' in it, it's probably bad, since you don't know if that's really 
what they think.  Try to convey things in another manner as to make them think 
what you want them to think.

Avoid pointless anachronism.  It's tacky.  Areas should have some
internal logic, as well as logic to the rest of the world, instead of just 
being a lump of anachronism to provoke a titter the first time, and gradually 
to become tiresome.  Strive for cleverness and wit instead.

Put in extra descriptions in rooms especially, but also on objects.  It
fleshes the area out more.  Overdo extra descs rather than underdoing

Write utility linker rooms.  If you have a long and winding road going
up to the castle -- write at least a couple of road rooms.  Be sure to say 
'the castle to the north' and not 'the castle in front of you' since the 
person might have left it.

Write 'useless' objects for colour.  If the princess is the sort to wear
perfume, put some type furniture perfume in a type object vanity table
that could be found if looked for.  It too fleshes out the world.  (Note that 
Satin wrote 600 useless objects for Cordreas Heart, but you don't have to be 
asthorough (read, insane) as her.  ;)

If there's furniture in a room, write it as an object and load it there,
so that it could be sat on/etc.

If you have no_take objects (such as the donation pit) or mobs that
cannot be killed and are sentinel (shopkeepers, adepts, etc.) write them as 
normal objects/mobs, consider giving them no long description, just a ~, and 
describe them as part of the room, to blend them into the world more.  If the 
mob can be killed, or the object taken, though, you should give it a long 
desc, since it might not be there.

Do NOT write descriptions of a mobile into the room description if you
also load that mobile in the area.  Do not do the following:

<room desc>
You are in a throne room.  A huge gold throne with the king of the
goblins sitting on it is in front of you.  He cries out and several bodyguards 

Instead do:

<room desc>
You are in a throne room.  A huge gold throne is immediately in front of
you.  Tapestries depicting the greatness of the ruler whose castle you have 
intruded hang on all walls.  <mobile> The king of the goblins is here.  He 
cries for help!  <mobiles> A bodyguard screams and attacks!  A bodyguard 
screams and attacks!  A bodyguard screams and attacks!  A bodyguard screams 
and attacks!

NEVER write an area that is too easy, or that has absurdly powerful equipment, 
just to make it popular.  Do not rely on a mobile being 'really tough' as the 
sole balance to an otherwise overpowered item -- people have soloed 30,000hp 
mobiles (admittedly, people with nothing better to do, but you get the idea).  
A well-balanced item (for example, the enchanted leather bracer) will 
ultimately earn popularity of its own right, and be less likely to be adjusted 
by a disgusted implementor who was tired of seeing people immort after 
spending a half day in your zone.  Besides, then all the Real Studly Area 
Builders like Satin and Andersen will laugh at you.  :)

Пишите мне письма, ваш GrayMage      

Дизайн: Алексей Крючков
Strategy Gamez by GrayMage
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